02/01/2014 - 16:13
Renewable Energy Development Institute - REDI

While we are discovering renewable energy sources, innovative solutions which protect against excessive environment pollution are being still searched for. Some varieties of using renewable energy connect with ecological project simultaneously co-creating it. Biomass and biogas remain a part of this connection.

Biogas, which is also called landfill gas, is produced by the anaerobic digestion of organic compounds such as; sugar industry wastewater, municipal waste, agricultural food industry waste and biomass. This kind of digestion is a really complex biochemical process that occurs without any oxygen and when there is high pressure. This process allows you to acquire about 60% of biogas. These gases are produced in the biogas plants and because they are purified, they are safe for the atmosphere. Un-purified gas contains 65% of methane, 35% of carbon dioxide and in addition, other gases like hydrogen sulphide or carbon monoxide.

At each landfill the biogas is produced, it is then naturally transferred to the atmosphere. However, any methane included in it, is a threat to the environment. It causes degradation of the root system of plants, and many explosions and fires due to its inflammability. This poses a threat to both the environment and humankind. Moreover, methane indeed has a detrimental impact on the Earth’s ozone layer, which is also associated with the developing and growing problem of the greenhouse effect. This is a reason why reasonable usage is so important.

We should take care of preventing against uncontrolled gas leaks into atmosphere. To do this a degassing landfills process is realized. There are a few ways of such action. The simplest one is a passive form, which is performed by drilling through a whole thickness of the landfill body. Specially perforated pipes are then installed. Gas enters them and the torches built-up in the pipes burn the biogas which comes out under its own pressure. At modern landfills the special digesters or reactors were installed a long time ago. Their role is to gradually transform harmful fumes. The biogas can also develop in natural conditions. This process occurs at moors which consist mainly of cellulose - it is then called marsh gas or sewage gas.

The use of biogas means investing in biogas plants. It is widely used as fuel to produce heat in gas boilers, electricity by generators fuelled by gas or to produce electricity and heat in co-generation units. It should be emphasized that 540-600 kWh of electricity can be produced of 100 m3 of biogas. This potential was noticed in Europe by such countries like: Switzerland, France, Germany, India, China and the USA.

Biogas is also used in agriculture, where the production of animal waste is combined with everyday life. From 1 m3, 20 m 3of biogas can be obtained and from 1 m3of manure, 30 m3 of biogas is obtained. Huge farms that have a large number of animals, usually decide to use manure.

There are many advantages of obtaining energy from biogas, including the previously mentioned usage of harmful methane which prevents increasing the greenhouse effect problem. This kind of energy is a renewable source of energy and consumes stored waste in an ecological way. This is important for soil, groundwater, surface reservoirs and rivers, because it prevents pollution. The result of this type of processing of waste is a natural fertilizer which is efficiently and easily absorbed by plants.

The value of biogas is increasing due to the lack of places to store the waste. Due to its excessive production, finding a way for its use proved to be a brilliant idea of obtaining it from an alternative source. The waste is easily available because it is produced all the time and this makes it an endless source of power. It is worth noting such undertaking because it saves the atmosphere from the harmful effects of greenhouse gases.

People are forever trying to find new sources of renewable energy, so it isn’t surprising that they are especially interested in water and its versatility. Accordingly, much effort has been directed into obtaining energy from tidal and wave power, which are defined as circular movements of water molecules caused by wind that moves water surface through friction.