02/01/2014 - 16:31
Renewable Energy Development Institute - REDI

There are plants almost everywhere. There use has stopped being the only source of food or aesthetic values. Over the years the new aim of there growing arose- it is the bio-fuels production. The role of plants in power production includes biomass production as one of the renewable sources of energy.

The grain most commonly used is the oat which world cultivation estimates has about 17.9 million ha and in Poland it is 570 thousand ha. The oats yields are relatively low because their collection is only 1.7% of all grain crops. However, there are countries where high yields are achieved for example in Ireland where 6 t/ha is achieved or in Holland where 5.8 t/ha is achieved. Traditionally the oat is used as animal feed or raw material for the food industry. It is also used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and chemical industry and recently in energy production.

Such a way of using the oat was found out by Swedes. There are numerous installations for incineration of grain work in this country. Canada and the United States follow in there footsteps. The scientists on the basis of studies proved that heating with the use of maize grains is less expensive than the one with the use of traditional sources like gas, oil or electricity.

The use of oats for heating needs the technology that enables efficient combustion. This means equipping the boiler with special burner for grain combustion that can be solidly installed on any boiler. The process begins with passing the grain to the burner with a suitable feeder. Then it goes to a combustion chamber where is aerated with a ventilator and incinerated. Next, the flame is ejected from combustion chamber to a heating chamber. The features of the burners for oat combustion are efficiency and reliability. Moreover, they have a security system in case of emergency so they can be automatically turned off. This kind of burner can be used to heat the public buildings or production facilities but usually they are used to heat farms.

It is estimated that to produce 10 thousand kW of heating energy about 3 tonnes of oats are needed which brings 100 liters compared to fuel combustion. On average in heating season 6-7 tones of grain is consumed. The crops of 2ha on the field are sufficient to heat a farm.

The oats soil requirements are low so it can be cultivated everywhere this makes it an advantage. Poor quality soil can be used to cultivate oats and it is a good way to develop set-asides. Moreover, when it is sowed at the contaminated areas it removes heavy metals from soil. It is also easy to burn and is characterized by a stable energy value- 18.5 MJ / kg and a humidity of 10-13%. Another advantage is that with the combustion of oat minimum amounts of ash is formed. This ash may be perfect fertilizer used in the fields or in gardens. Besides, exhaust gases generated in the combustion process are less toxic than the ones generated while heating with other materials.

The transport and the storage of the oats are easier than other forms of biomass which is a practical advantage. Utilization of oat surplus for energy production prevents it being wasted.

Although the oat as heating material has many benefits, there are also some drawbacks. The most dangerous threat to cultivation is vermin. With regards to the construction of the boiler it should be mentioned that the burner is not the cheapest part and without it the beneficial and efficient combustion would be impossible to happen. Indeed, the combustion process consists of a few significant factors which are crucial for reaching intended effects.

The energy grain is becoming popular and owing to its natural roots contributes to keeping the environment clean. Such use of oat develops energy agriculture and reduces amount of barrens.

People are forever trying to find new sources of renewable energy, so it isn’t surprising that they are especially interested in water and its versatility. Accordingly, much effort has been directed into obtaining energy from tidal and wave power, which are defined as circular movements of water molecules caused by wind that moves water surface through friction.